Climate extremes can dramatically affect the well-being of many species. For instance, extreme drought or heat waves can increase the mortality of several species. Studies also show that species recover in various ways after climate extremes have stopped. It is, however, little known about what ecological factors determine various types of species recovery. We study the recovery of soil organisms, insects, and plants after climate extremes by investigating various biotic and abiotic factors ranging from their traits to their interactions with resources, neighbours, and enemies.