Soil is one of the most biodiverse habitats on Earth, but we still know less about how soil can harbor a vast diversity of microorganisms and invertebrates. Is it the abiotic features of the soil, or is it the unique biotic interactions in the soil, or is it related to physical structure of the soil? Are all soils from different environments equally biodiverse? And how does climate change affect soil biodiversity? We examine various such aspects to unravel the “what”, “when” and “how” of hyper-biodiversity in soils.